study of the Bible has been largely ignored in the Yeshiva high school and post-high
school Yeshiva curriculum. By textual study I mean, searching for pshuto shel
mikra through reading the text itself while paying close attention to the use
of language, syntax, style, and structure. It also includes being mindful of recurring
themes, imagery and ideas.
It can be argued that there are three major reasons that textual study
of Tanakh has been forsaken in the traditional setting. In short, these reasons are
1. The Academic/Scientific approach to the study of the Biblical texts
has generally left the text void of any religious or theological message. Or worse, at
times it has implied messages considered threatening to traditional Jewish values and
2. The Written Torah was given together with its commentary, the
Oral Torah. Therefore, there is no need for any other interpretation.
3. The texts, understood on their own, can often be critical of some of
the Bibles personalities. It would be educationally counter-productive to allow our
heroes to be understood this way.
It is the goal of this paper to present an approach to Tanakh as
a means of religious instruction through textual study, which intends to breathe new life
to the study of the texts by focusing on the deep moral messages that can be understood by
the contemporary reader. It will also attempt to alleviate some of the concerns of the
religious Bible instructor mentioned above.
Effective Bible teaching must include a careful analysis and study of
language, content, and structure of the Biblical texts. However, the religious Bible
teacher must focus on the acquisition and appreciation of Biblical moral concepts. The
ultimate goal being that this understanding will in turn lead to an internalization of
these moral concepts (see: Roberta M. Milgram, A Study of the Inquiry-Discovery
Method in Teaching Moral Concepts in The Synagogue School 28:3 [Spring 1970]:
I would like to suggest that as educators we should be less concerned
with the debate over whether the Avot may have sinned or not, and more concerned
with the religious and moral messages that each approach has to offer. Even if one were to
take the position, discussed earlier, that the true portrayal of our Avot is not
that of the written Torah but that of the Oral Torah. There is still value in studying the
text itself to gain an additional insight. This is exactly similar to when the halacha
contradicts the simple pshat of the biblical text. The classic example
is ayin tahat ayin, an eye for an eye. The Oral Law
stipulates that this is not to be taken literally, rather, it obligates the damager to
compensate the victim monetarily. Yet many of the classical commentaries have learned
additional lessons from the simple meaning of an eye for an eye. Similarly, we
may, and should learn out the hidden messages from the revealed words of the text even
though we may not pasken like the pshat.
Another aspect of this approach is the primacy it gives to the
development of the student both intellectually and spiritually. Using current educational
strategies, which believe that the student is his own greatest teacher, this method calls
upon the students to encounter the text directly and formulate their own answers to the
questions that emerge. This will allow for a greater chance for internalization of those
values that the Torah is trying to inculcate, will transform the students into active
learners, and enhance their sense of being connected to the learning process.
Finally, I will demonstrate this approach (of teaching values through the perspective
of Pshat) with two examples of thematic and textual analysis of biblical schemes in
a classroom setting.